And we pray this in order that you may live a life worthy of the Lord and may please him in every way: bearing fruit in every good work, growing in the knowledge of God, being strengthened with all power according to his glorious might so that you may have great endurance and patience, and joyfully giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the kingdom of light (Colossians 1:10-12).
Supposed Founder of
Earlier articles in this blog have often focused upon problems
with the teachings of C. S. Lewis and the other Inklings, but in this, the second part of our Hermeticist Next Door series, we will look deeply
at the historical stream of which he and the influences surrounding him were a
part. As we understand their philosophical, religious, and literary roots,
their true nature will become clearer.
Lewis is deeply rooted in what is known as the Western Esoteric Traditions (or
Tradition). This term describes a number of important movements and practices
that have occurred over many centuries—powerful influences that have been very significant
in the history of Christianity, right down to our present age. Yet sometimes these
influences have gone completely unnoticed by the majority of Christians.
What exactly are the Western Esoteric Traditions?
The Western esoteric traditions
have their roots in a religious way of thinking, which reaches back to
Gnosticism, Hermeticism, and Neoplatonism in the Hellenistic world during the
first centuries A.D. In the Renaissance, the rediscovery of ancient texts led
to the scholarly revival of magic, astrology, alchemy, and Kabbalah. Following
the Reformation, this spiritual current gave rise to theosophy, Rosicrucianism,
and Freemasonry, and the modern occult revival extends from nineteenth-century
spiritualism, H. P. Blavatsky’s Theosophy, and ceremonial magic orders to
twentieth-century esotericists such as Rudolf Steiner, Alice A. Bailey, and
George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, and the analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung.
[The Western Esoteric Traditions: A
Historical Introduction by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Introduction. Oxford
University Press, 2008. Kindle edition location 62,]
The book Western
Esotericism by Antoine Faivre and Christine Rhone offers four definitions
of esotericism, but we’ll just go with the first and most common one:
Five Meanings of the Term
1. Meaning 1: A Disparate
In this meaning, which is the most
current, esotericism appears, for example, as the title of sections in
bookshops and in much media discourse to refer to almost everything that exudes
a scent of mystery. Oriental wisdom traditions, yoga, mysterious Egypt,
ufology, astrology and all sorts of divinatory arts, parapsychology, various
“Kabbalahs,” alchemy, practical magic, Freemasonry, Tarot, New Age, New
Religious Movements, and channeling are found thus placed side by side (in
English, the label used in the bookshops is often Occult or Metaphysics).
This nebula often includes all sorts of images, themes, and motifs, such as
ontological androgyny [the belief that man was originally made a hermaphrodite],
the Philosopher’s Stone, the lost Word, the Soul of the World, sacred
geography, the magic book, and so on. [Western
Esotericism by Antoine Faivre and Christine Rhone. (Suny Series in Western
Esoteric Traditions). State University of New York Press, 2010. Kindle edition
The Romantic Movement, which I have written about extensively in this blog, is just one element in the much
greater movement of the Western Esoteric Traditions.
To study the Western Esoteric Traditions as they manifest among
non-Christians is strange, but not nearly as strange as seeing how people
calling themselves Christians have played a major part in these traditions and
have defended them as a valid part of Christianity. After Christ rescued me out
of my involvement in that esotericism (and I definitely did not consider myself
as a Christian until after my rescue), I found to my surprise that people were
accepting aspects of it as totally valid and very positive for Christians to
participate in. This was very difficult for me with my life experience to cope
For example, when I was a new Christian and waiting in a
church lobby to see a pastor, I got into a conversation with a lady who was
also waiting. She began sharing about her involvement with a well-known
occultic figure named Rudolf Steiner. She said that she didn’t talk about it
with most other Christians because they always thought Steiner was very weird and
condemned her. (Steiner created a type of subdivision of Theosophy called
Anthroposophy.) At the time I had been reading a book by C. S. Lewis in which
he said there were some positive aspects about Anthroposophy, so, therefore, I
didn’t become alarmed about what this woman was telling me. Later, I learned
that Anthroposophy was actually just like the evil non-Christian occultism I
had left behind. But because C. S. Lewis had approved of it, I didn’t warn this
woman of the danger she was in.
Another time I got into a conversation with another student at
the University of Oregon. I was sharing with him how positive I thought C. S.
Lewis was and that I’d been reading his space trilogy, especially the last book
called That Hideous Strength. I said
quite innocently that I was a little disturbed because its ending scene
reminded me of my previous occult involvement. In the scene, a group of Anglicans prayed for help against evil forces and through their prayer raised up Merlin the
Magician from a long sleep. Merlin then led animals—bears and such—to attack
the evil people. The other student was very shocked and annoyed that I’d think
something was wrong with the occult. He was an avid reader of C. S. Lewis, and I
believe he considered himself a Christian.
After years of studying historically the role of the Western
Esoteric Traditions in Germany, Great Britain, and other countries, I have come
to see how intricately all of these strange ideas and practices are connected with certain
types of literature that many people consider Christian; and, furthermore, how more
and more often this literature is being considered Christian by Evangelicals who used
to be wary of literature but are now experiencing a literary renaissance with
an explosion of fantasy writing under the label of “Christian fiction.”
These are just a few examples of why I am so disturbed about
what is happening among Evangelicals today and feel compelled to keep speaking
I do think it can be positive that Evangelicals are more
open to historical and cultural influences, but there must be discernment
because some of these influences definitely are evil, and to look upon them
without discernment is very dangerous. Church history has proven what a stumbling block for
Christian thinking and living that pagan thinking and fantasy can be.
Furthermore, there is a massive occult explosion happening
right now all around us, and many Christians—and especially young
Christians—are being swept into tremendous bondage by these forces and
influences. Perhaps one of the worst aspects of this explosion and its effects
on the Church is the lack of discernment by some major Evangelical leaders and
the influence they exert on their followers.
Undiscerning Evangelical Leaders
And Their Influence
This is an age in which many Evangelicals are caught up in
certain aspects of the Western Esoteric Traditions while thinking they are really
good, desirable, and innocent, and enable us to be alive in Christ.
One major influence comes from the Inklings and the support
of the Inklings given by some Evangelical leaders.
John Piper. The
most popular example is John Piper, who is currently giving lengthy and
enthusiastic apologetics for Lewis, and encouraging people to read all of Lewis’s
works. The bizarre nature of Piper’s approach is evident in his online video, “Lessons
from an Inconsolable Soul.” He first lists the many problems and dangers
with Lewis’s thinking and then extols his work as wonderful for Christians. He
even subtitles the video, “Seems I Shouldn’t Find Lewis so Helpful.” Indeed.
Montgomery. Another modern example of a supposed Christian leader
introducing Hermeticism to Christians is John Warwick Montgomery, who as an
apologist for the Inklings in his defense of Charles Williams, made appalling
statements about the “usefulness” of Tarot cards for Christians.
In his book, Principalities and Powers (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany Fellowship,
1973), Montgomery claims that writers “such as T. S. Eliot (The Waste Land) and
Charles Williams (The Greater Trumps)
have employed its [the Tarot] imagery so effectively both in describing the
lostness of the human condition and the Christian redemptive solution” (p.
131). He states, “Because the cards are so potent symbolically, they are also
most dangerous when misused or perverted.” Misused? Perverted? They are essentially already
dangerous occult techniques of divination and should never be used at all.
Montgomery also described Arthur Edward Waite as a
Christian. Waite was a co-creator of a Tarot deck, wrote many occultic books, and
was in the hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in England.
Temple of the Rosy Cross
Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618
Montgomery wrote his Ph.D. thesis defending the man who
wrote the basic documents of Rosicrucianism,
trying to dismiss them as just a joke. (See his Cross and Crucible: Johann Valentin Andreae (1586-1654), phoenix of the theologians, Volume 1.) (Founded
in the 1600s by Christian Rosenkreuz, Rosicrucianism is an occult philosophy
and part of the Western Esoteric Traditions.)
Basically, Montgomery has been introducing Hermeticism to Christians.
Regent College, a
graduate school in the Anglican tradition located in Vancouver, B.C. (where J.
I. Packer has taught for years), has been republishing the works
of Charles Williams, an open hermeticist.
Speaking of Regent College evokes
memories of our trip there around 20 years ago when we were exploring the
possibility of attending. What we experienced was like a scene out of a novel.
First we met with a professor and his wife whose office was like a cave out of The Hobbit. Then we met with the
founder, John Huston, who treated us as though we were generic ciphers and who,
after we had explained our ministry of many years, dismissed it and said that
what we really needed was spiritual
formation (his big focus). Then we met J. I. Packer, who staunchly defended
psychology as a means of sanctification. So it’s not surprising that Regent is
republishing the works of Charles Williams. (We decided not to attend.)
George MacDonald. Because
C. S. Lewis has so greatly extolled George MacDonald, his writing has emerged
from obscurity and become mainline Protestant literature. Lewis called
MacDonald his “master” and stated
that through reading MacDonald’s works, he experienced a “baptism” of his
imagination. MacDonald, while appearing seemingly innocent, is actually very
deceptive. MacDonald had been a Scot Calvinist preacher, but when he was removed from the pulpit for unorthodox doctrines, he began writing stories.
MacDonald was strongly influenced by Novalis,
a 19th century hermeticist who was part of the Romantic Movement. (Novalis
was his pen name; his real name was Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg.)MacDonald translated some of Novalis’ works into English and quoted him
in some of his own books. (See my article, “’Christian’
Romanticism, the Inklings, and the Elevation of Mythology” for more
details; also, the book Romantic Religion: A Study of
Barfield, Lewis, Williams, and Tolkien by R. J. Reilly. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1972.)
A Historical Perspective
A good way to grasp what the Western Esoteric Traditions are all about is to look at the historical figure of Jacob Boehme (1575-1624), who influenced Charles Williams.
was a leading Protestant mystic and a member of a Lutheran church in a region
in Germany rich in Hermetic tradition. He presented an esoteric psychology
based on alchemy, Kabbalah, and astrology, which placed him firmly within the
Western Esoteric Traditions. This weird mixture is typical of the ways esotericism
has been combined with Christian practice. Orthodox pastors rebuked him and
forbade him to write, but he wrote secretly and gained many followers. (See The Western Esoteric Traditions: A
Historical Introduction by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. Oxford University
Press, 2008, Kindle edition, location 1712.)
There’s a direct connection between Boehme’s “theosophy” and
Charles Williams in that William Law, a disciple of Boehme’s teachings, was
very influential upon Charles Williams, who then was very influential upon C.
S. Lewis. This is one example of how these occultic traditions have been passed
along. In fact, Lewis considered Williams [a Hermeticist] as one of the holiest
men he’d ever met. (See other posts in
this blog discussing the problems with Williams.) Williams was also a
Neoplatonist. Lewis apparently confused holiness with mysticism.
C. S. Lewis and the
Lewis’s fascination with the occult is apparent in that he
wanted to write his doctoral thesis on Henry More, a known alchemist and one of
the most important of the Cambridge Platonists (1600s), but he decided to go
into literature instead of philosophy so he changed the focus of his thesis.
As I showed in my earlier post, “The
Hidden War,” Lewis actually was a Platonist and was teaching Platonism in
his children’s stories.Frederick W.
Baue, in his article, “It’s All in
Plato: An Examination of C. S. Lewis’s Worldview,” revealed how strongly
Platonism and Neo-platonism influenced Lewis’s worldview right up to his death.
As I pointed out in that article, and believe it is important to stress, Lewis’s work has become so accepted that
there is a universal blindness to the philosophy embedded in it.
The Cambridge Platonists were professors at Cambridge
University who, though considering themselves Christians, incorporated
Hermeticism and Neoplatonism with their Christian practices and thinking. And,
of course, these practices and philosophies are contradictory to the teachings
of the Bible, which warns against vain philosophies and witchcraft.
See to it that no one takes you
captive to hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition
and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ.
"Blessed are those who wash their robes, that they may have the right to the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city. Outside are the dogs, those who practice magic arts, the sexually immoral, the murderers, the idolaters and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.
“I, Jesus, have
sent my angel to give you this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and
the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star.”
Today the resurgence of Hermeticism
and its blind promotion by many Christians is shaping modern Evangelicalism in
powerful and disturbing ways. This article is a mere beginning in showing
how very strong and alive the spiritual battle is of the temptation to be a
“magical” Christian and how very destructive it is of a solid Christian life.
It is also a strong warning to be careful about whose
writings we are following and ingesting into our thinking. Having our minds
shaped by Biblical teaching is of the greatest importance. The Bible does not
have to be the only book we should ever read, but it should be the canon—the measuring rod—of what we are
reading and hearing. It is the very unique Word of Truth.